An era of mass migrations, porous borders and easily obtained fraudulent documents is blurring the definition of citizenship and putting national security at risk around the globe, says UC Irvine political science professor Kamal Sadiq in his new book, “Paper Citizens: How Illegal Immigrants Acquire Citizenship in Developing Countries.” The book is now available through Oxford University Press. Sadiq’s research focuses on “documentary citizenship” – immigrants’ use of forged documents or illegally obtained authentic passports to prove residency or citizenship. Weak and erratic bureaucracies in developing countries allow fake documents to flourish. The result is a thriving underground process for attaining citizenship.