Irvine, Calif., May 13, 2015 – The tendency for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder to lash out in anger can be significantly amplified if they are also depressed, according to research led by Ray Novaco, UC Irvine professor of psychology & social behavior, and published this week by the American Psychological Association.

“Our findings should draw attention to anger as a major treatment need when military service members screen positive for PTSD or for depression – and especially when they screen positive for both,” Novaco said. The study first appeared in the journal Psychological Trauma: Theory Research, Practice & Policy.

The researchers analyzed the behavioral health data of 2,077 U.S. soldiers (1,823 men and 254 women) who were deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan and subsequently sought behavioral health services at a large military installation. The participants were screened for PTSD and major depressive disorder and placed in one of four groups: PTSD only, MDD only, PTSD and MDD combined, or neither. Novaco’s team also gauged the veterans’ anger and noted whether they had said they were considering harming others.

Anger and self-rated risk of harm were both significantly higher in the group with both PTSD and major depression, which were found to frequently coexist. About 72 percent of those who screened positive for PTSD also screened positive for MDD.

“One reason we conducted this research is that anger has been given insufficient attention as a clinical problem among combat veterans and trauma populations in general,” Novaco said. “PTSD and depression dominate the landscape, but these, of course, are formal psychiatric disorders. There is no diagnostic category for anger, nor do I think there should be, so anger slips from research attention.”

Previous studies conducted with both military members and civilians who had experienced trauma have shown anger in the context of PTSD to be far more than a symptom; it can predict PTSD severity and interfere with PTSD treatment. A 2010 analysis of more than 18,000 soldiers returning from Iraq found that about 40 percent had had physical bursts of anger, at least 30 percent had threatened someone with physical violence, and over 15 percent had gotten into a physical fight.

“Anger is a driver of violent behavior, but it is responsive to anger-focused psychological treatment,” said Novaco, adding that this is one reason why soldiers presenting with PTSD, depression or, especially, both should receive appropriate care. Numerous studies have been published on the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for anger in combat veterans, he noted.

Co-authors of the paper are UCI doctoral student Oscar Gonzalez; and Mark Reger and Gregory Gahm of Joint Base Lewis-McChord and the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health & Traumatic Brain Injury, both in Washington.

About the American Psychological Association: Based in Washington, D.C., the American Psychological Association is the largest scientific and professional organization representing psychology in the U.S. The APA’s membership includes more than 122,500 researchers, educators, clinicians, consultants and students. Through its divisions in 54 subfields of psychology and affiliations with 60 state, territorial and Canadian provincial associations, the APA works to advance the creation, communication and application of psychological knowledge to benefit society and improve people’s lives.

About the University of California, Irvine: Currently celebrating its 50th anniversary, UCI is the youngest member of the prestigious Association of American Universities. The campus has produced three Nobel laureates and is known for its academic achievement, premier research, innovation and anteater mascot. Led by Chancellor Howard Gillman, UCI has more than 30,000 students and offers 192 degree programs. It’s located in one of the world’s safest and most economically vibrant communities and is Orange County’s second-largest employer, contributing $4.8 billion annually to the local economy. For more on UCI, visit

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